Category Archives: Aluminum is NOT a Natural Compound Found in the Earth’s Crust

Aluminum is NOT a Natural Compound Found in the Earth’s Crust

Aluminum is NOT a Natural Compound Found in the Earth’s Crust

by hsaive  New post on GeoEngineering Exposed

DEBUNKING THE DEBUNKERS – Aluminum is NOT a natural compound found on the earth

May 24, 2012,  by Fred Anthony

by Fred Anthony on Friday, March 9, 2012 at 12:31pm   original article

I keep seeing this comment in chemtrail debunking websites often quoted by chemtrail doubters:
 ”Aluminum is the most abundant metallic element in the earth’s crust, about 8% of the ground is aluminum”


Where does aluminum  come from?
Where does fluoride come from?

Aluminum is derived from the ore bauxite.  First bauxite is mined from typically shallow deposits, and then it is refined into alumina (alumina hydroxide – Al2O3) using the Bayer process at an alumina refinery. The alumina, a powdery white substance, is then sent to an aluminum smelter where it subjected to electrolysis (Hall/Héroult process) which separates out the aluminum metal.


Bauxite is a naturally occurring, heterogeneous material composed primarily of one or more aluminum hydroxide minerals, plus various mixtures of silica, iron oxide, titania, aluminosilicate, and other impurities in minor or trace amounts.  The principal aluminum hydroxide minerals found in varying proportions with bauxites are gibbsite and the polymorphs boehmite and diaspore.  Bauxites are typically classified according to their intended commercial application:  abrasive, cement, chemical, metallurgical, refractory, etc.  The bulk of world bauxite production (approximately 85%) is used as feed for the manufacture of alumina via a wet chemical caustic leach method commonly known as the Bayer process.   Subsequently, the majority of the resulting alumina produced from this refining process is in turn employed as the feedstock for the production of aluminum metal by the electrolytic reduction of alumina in a molten bath of natural or synthetic cryolite (Na3AlF6), the Hall-Héroult process.

 The Bayer process is the principal industrial means of refining bauxite to produce alumina (aluminium oxide). Bauxite, the most important ore of aluminium, contains only 30–54% aluminium oxide, (alumina), Al2O3, the rest being a mixture of silica, various iron oxides, and titanium dioxide.[1] The aluminium oxide must be purified before it can be refined to aluminium metal.

In the Bayer process, bauxite is digested by washing with a hot solution of sodium hydroxide, NaOH, at 175 °C. This converts the aluminium oxide in the ore to sodium aluminate, NaAl(OH)4, according to the chemical equation:

Al2O3 + 2 NaOH + 3 H2O → 2 NaAl(OH)4

The other components of bauxite do not dissolve. The solution is clarified by filtering off the solid impurities. The mixture of solid impurities is called red mud, and presents a disposal problem. Next, the alkaline solution is cooled, and aluminium hydroxide precipitates as a white, fluffy solid:

NaAl(OH)4 → Al(OH)3 + NaOH

Then, when heated to 980°C (calcined), the aluminium hydroxide decomposes to aluminium oxide, giving off water vapor in the process:

2 Al(OH)3 → Al2O3 + 3 H2O

A large amount of the aluminium oxide so produced is then subsequently smelted in the Hall–Héroult process in order to produce aluminium.

the Hall–Héroult process
The Hall–Héroult process is the major industrial process for the production of aluminium. It involves dissolving alumina in molten cryolite, and electrolysing the molten salt bath to obtain pure aluminium metal.

Aluminium cannot be produced by the electrolysis of an aluminium salt dissolved in water because of the high reactivity of aluminium with the protons of water and the subsequent formation of hydrogen. As in aqueous solution, protons (H+) are preferentially reduced to atomic hydrogen before Al3+ ions, the reduction of Al3+ is done by electrolysis of a molten aluminium salt. This is a water free medium, and hence, H+ reduction is avoided.

In the Hall–Héroult process alumina, Al2O3, is dissolved in an industrial carbon-lined vat of molten cryolite, Na3AlF6 (sodium hexafluoroaluminate), called a “cell”. Aluminium oxide has a melting point of over 2,000 °C (3,630 °F) while pure cryolite has a melting point of 1,012 °C (1,854 °F). With a small percentage of alumina dissolved in it, cryolite has a melting point of about 1,000 °C (1,830 °F). Some aluminium fluoride, AlF3 is also added into the process to reduce the melting point of the cryolite-alumina mixture.

The molten mixture of cryolite, alumina, aluminium fluoride is then electrolyzed by passing a direct electric current through it. The electrochemical reaction causes liquid aluminium metal to be deposited at the cathode as a precipitate, while the oxygen from the alumina combines with carbon from the anode to produce carbon dioxide, CO2. An electric potential of three to five Volts is needed to drive the reaction, and the rate of production is proportional to the electric current. An industrial-scale smelter typically consumes hundreds of thousands of Amperes for each cell.[1][2]

The oxidation of the carbon anode reduces the required voltage across each cell, increasing the electrical efficiency, at a cost of continually replacing the carbon electrodes with new ones, and also the cost of releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Hundreds of Hall-Heroult cells are usually connected electrically in series, and they are supplied with direct current (DC) from a single set of rectifiers that convert the alternating current (AC) supplied to the factory into direct current. The very high electric current is supplied to the cells through heavy, low electrical resistance metal busbars made of pure aluminium or copper. The cells are electrically heated to reach the operating temperature with this current, and the anode regulator system varies the current passing through the cell by raising or lowering the anodes and changing the cell’s resistance. If needed any cell can be bypassed by shunt busbars.

The liquid aluminium is taken out with the help of a siphon operating with a vacuum, in order to avoid having to use extremely high temperature valves and pumps. The liquid aluminium then may be transferred in batches or via a continuous hot flow line to a location where it is cast into aluminium ingots. The aluminium can either be cast into the form of final cast-aluminium products, or the ingots can be sent elsewhere such as a rolling mill for being pressed into sheets, or the a wire-drawing mill for producing aluminium wires and cables.

While solid cryolite is denser than solid aluminium at room temperature, the liquid aluminium product is denser than the molten cryolite at temperatures around 1,000 °C (1,830 °F), and the aluminium sinks to the bottom of the electrolytic cell, where it is periodically collected.[3] The tops and sides of the cells are covered with layers of solid cryolite which also act as thermal insulation. The unavoidable electric resistance within each cell produces sufficient heat to keep the cryolite-alumina mixture molten.

With the percentage of aluminium dissolved in each cell being depleted by the electrolysis in the molten cryolite, additional alumina is continually dropped into the cells to maintain the required level of alumina. Whenever a solid crust forms across the surface of the molten cryolite-alumina, this crust is broken from time to time to allow the added alumina to fall into the molten cryolite and dissolve there.

The electrolysis process produces exhaust which escapes into the fume hood and is evacuated. The exhaust is primarily CO2 produced from the anode consumption and hydrogen fluoride (HF) from the cryolite and flux. HF is a highly corrosive and toxic gas, even etching glass surfaces. The gases are either treated or vented into the atmosphere; the former involving neutralization of the HF to its sodium salt, sodium fluoride. The particulates are also captured and reused using electrostatic or bag filters. The remaining CO2 is usually vented into the atmosphere.

The very large electric current passing through the electrolytic cells generates a powerful magnetic field, and this can stir the molten aluminium with magneto-hydrodynamic forces in properly-designed cells. The stirring of the molten aluminium in each cell typically increases its performance, but the purity of the aluminium is reduced, since it gets mixed with small amounts of cryolite and aluminium fluoride. If the cells are designed for no stirring, they can be operated with static pools of molten aluminium so that the impurities either rise to the top of the metallic aluminium, or else sink to the bottom, leaving high-purity aluminium in the middle.

Aluminium smelters are usually sited where inexpensive hydroelectric power is available. For some European smelters, the electric power produced by hydroelectric plants in countries such as Norway, Switzerland, and Austria is transmitted by high-voltage power lines to such places as Denmark, Sweden, Germany, and Italy to be used by aluminium and magnesium factories. Since aluminium factories require nearly-uniform supplies of electric current, they make the most of nearly-constant supplies of electric power, and these are also available close to many hydroelectric power plants. To give an example of such use of hydroelectric power, the three main regions for aluminium production in North America have always been in the Tennessee River Valley of the Southeastern United States, the Columbia River Valley of Washington and Oregon, and the St. Lawrence River Valley of southeastern Canada and the Northeastern United States.

Many decades ago, before the existence of the Tennessee Valley Authority, aluminium companies such as Alcoa even built their own hydroelectric dams and powerhouses in the Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee.


The lethal dose for a 70 kg (154 lb) human is estimated at 5–10 g.[6] Sodium fluoride is classed as toxic by both inhalation (of dusts or aerosols) and ingestion.[12] In high enough doses, it has been shown to affect the heart and circulatory system.
Sodium fluoride IT TOXIc to humans

Flouride in your toothpaste causes what is known as Fluorapatite.  Fluoride salts are used to enhance the strength of teeth by the formation of fluorapatite, a naturally occurring component of tooth enamel (not natural) but  the crystalization of flouride


hsaive | October 24, 2012 at 4:11 pm | Categories: Chemtrails and Covert Climate Modification | URL: